Linus Pauling S Like For Chemistry And World Peace
Linus Carl Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon, on February 28, 1901, first of 3 children of pharmacist Herman W. Pauling and Lucy Isabelle Pauling ne Darling. An internationally acclaimed scientist, educator, humanitarian, and political activist, the only person to have received 3 unshared Nobel Prizes for chemistry in 1954; for peace in 1962, Pauling was once characterized by New Scientist as one regarding the twenty greatest scientists of all time, on a par with Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Albert Einstein. His magnum opus, The Nature regarding the Chemical Bond 1939, was one regarding the highest many influential and frequently cited scientific books regarding the twentieth century. His advocacy of megadoses of vitamin C for the common cold, cancer, and AIDS is still controversial, and the work for which he is greatest known.
His life and career were characterized by controversy, and almost everything about him was larger than life. Pauling majored in chemical engineering at Oregon Agricultural College now Oregon State University, where he developed the belief that should book his lifetime of research: Atomic arrangements should be responsible for the chemical and physical properties of fabric substances. degree in 1922 and entered the California Institute of Cutting edge designs Caltech at Pasadena, where he worked with Roscoe G. Dickinson and adopted the relatively new technique of x-ray crystallography to explore the structure of crystals. In 1925 Pauling received his Ph.
and was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship to pursue postgraduate studies in Europe with the seminal atomic theorists Arnold Sommerfeld, Niels Bohr, and Erwin Schrdinger. First to realize the ramifications regarding the new quantum mechanics within chemistry, he used this body of plans to explain and predict the properties of atoms and ions, and thus to revolutionize chemistry. In 1927 Pauling returned to Pasadena to join the faculty of Caltech, where he stayed until 1963. There he used x-ray diffraction to measure the lengths and angles of atomic bonds within the three-dimensional structures of, first, inorganic crystals and, later, organic compounds. One regarding the key concepts of Pauling’s quantum theory of chemical bonding, introduced in 1931, was resonance: In many cases an ion or molecule should not be represented, conceptually or on paper, as one classical structure, but compulsory what he called a hybridization of 3 or more of these structures.
The lone classical structure basically did not describe the chemical bond s. In fewer than a decade he had transformed the earlier, somewhat simplistic theory regarding the chemical bond into a powerful, highly sophisticated theory and studies tool. During the mid-1930s Pauling turned his attention to molecules present in living things. His interest within the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin the protein molecule that carries oxygen via the bloodstream to cells throughout the body provoked a more general interest in proteins, the nitrogen-containing organic compounds compulsory in all of pet metabolism. In 1948, while in bed with influenza, Pauling occupied himself with creating a cardboard model of linked amino acids, the simple building blocks of proteins.
In this method he received the inspiration that led to his discovery regarding the alpha – helix a crucial concept that helped James Watson and Francis Crick to determine the structure of DNA, one regarding the discoveries regarding the century. And this landmark discovery of Watson and Crick led, ultimately, to Person Genome Project and the current revolution in genetic engineering. After World War II Pauling studied sickle cell anemia, and theorized that it was the result of a genetically based defect within the patient’s hemoglobin molecules. In 1949 he and Harvey Itano confirmed this theory; they had identified what they called a molecular disease, one that should be defined by a molecular abnormality. In 1954 Pauling received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his studies on the chemical bond and its application to elucidation regarding the structure of complex substances.
Less well-known is the record of Pauling’s evolution from ivory tower scientist to ardent and articulate advocate of nuclear disarmament and regarding the corporate responsibility of scientists. His eventual clashes with political and ideological adversaries, within the USA government, which denied him studies grants and a passport, consumed many of his time and energy. His being chosen for the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize was criticized by many, and the American Chemical Society, which he had served as president in 1949, at around this time, chose to slight him. In 1963 Pauling left Caltech to grow to studies professor at the Center for the Learn of Democratic Institutions at Santa Barbara, California, at which time he began to divide his time between chemistry and world peace. In Santa Barbara he became greatly interested in what he called ortho-molecular medicine a biochemical approach to person well-being that included the central plan that huge amounts of some chemical compounds normally present within the body should be used to treat or prevent disease.
In 1973, following professorships at the University of California, San Diego 19671969 and Stanford University 19691974, he founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine later named the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, an organization of which he was director of studies at the time of his death. He died of cancer at his Deer Flat Ranch near Large Sur, California, on August 19, 1994, at the age of ninety-three. Pauling was called one regarding the 3 greatest scientists regarding the twentieth century the other being Einstein and the greatest chemist since Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, the eighteenth-century founder of modern chemistry. Pauling’s multifaceted life and activities, scientific and personal, spanned almost the entire twentieth century.